Energy conversion tables

The Canada Energy Regulator uses the international system of units.

The tables below are intended to be a quick reference guide. For more precise conversions, please refer to the Energy conversion calculator.

Links to other conversion tables

Common Units

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Liquids

Abbreviation Description
b/d barrels per day
bbl barrels
cubic metre
m³/d cubic metres per day
Mb/d thousand barrels per day
MMb million barrels
MMb/d million barrels per day

Natural Gas

Abbreviation Description
Bcf billion cubic feet
Bcf/d billion cubic feet per day
Btu/cf British thermal units per cubic foot
cf cubic feet
cubic metre
m³/d cubic metres per day
Mcf thousand cubic feet
MMBtu million British thermal units
MMcf million cubic feet
MMcf/d million cubic feet per day
Tcf trillion cubic feet
t tonne (1000 kilograms)
equivalent to metric ton
MMt Million Metric tons
MMt/y Million Metric tons per year


Abbreviation Description
MW megawatt
kW.h kilowatt hour
MW.h megawatt hour
GW.h gigawatt hour
TW.h terawatt hour

Prefixes and Equivalents

Prefixes Equivalent
k (kilo) 103
M (mega) 106
G (giga) 109
T (tera) 1012
P (peta) 1015
E (exa) 1018

Common Conversions

Oil Density

UnitEquivalent to
Degrees API(141.5 / Sp. Gr.) – 131.5
Specific Gravity141.5 / (131.5 + Degrees API)
Degrees APISpecific Gravity


UnitEquivalent to
1.0 Metres (m)3.2808 Feet (ft)
1.0 Metres (m)1 x 10-3 Kilometres (km)
1.0 Metres (m)6.2137 x 10-4 Miles (mi)
1.0 Feet (ft)0.3048 Metres (m)
1.0 Feet (ft)3.048 x 10-4 Kilometres (km)
1.0 Feet (ft)1.8939 x 10-4 Miles (mi)
1.0 Kilometres (km)3,280.8399 Feet (ft)
1.0 Kilometres (km)1,000 Metres (m)
1.0 Kilometres (km)0.6214 Miles (mi)
1.0 Miles (mi)5,280 Feet (ft)
1.0 Miles (mi)1.6094 Kilometres (km)
1.0 Miles (mi)1,609.344 Metres (m)


UnitEquivalent to
1.0 Hectares2.4711 Acres
1.0 Hectares3.861 x 10-3 Square miles (sq mi)
1.0 Acres0.4047 Hectares
1.0 Acres1.5625 x 10-3 Square miles (sq mi)
1.0 Square miles (sq mi)640 Acres
1.0 Square miles (sq mi)258.9988 Hectares


UnitEquivalent to
1.0 Cubic metres (m³)6.2898 Barrels (bbl)
1.0 Cubic metres (m³)1,000 Litres (l)
1.0 Cubic metres (m³)219.9692 Imperial gallons
1.0 Cubic metres (m³)264.1721 US Gallons
1.0 Cubic metres (m³)
(@ 101.325 kPaa and 15° C)
35.3147 Cubic feet (cf) natural gas
(@ 14.73 psia and 60° F)
1.0 Cubic feet (cf) natural gas
(@ 14.73 psia and 60° F)
0.028317 Cubic metres (m³)
(@ 101.325 kPaa and 15° C)
1.0 US Gallons0.0238 Barrels (bbl)
1.0 US Gallons0.8327 Imperial gallons
1.0 US Gallons3.7854 Litres (l)
1.0 US Gallons3.7854 x 10-3 Cubic metres (m³)
1.0 Litres (l)0.22 Imperial gallons
1.0 Litres (l)6.2898 x 10-3 Barrels (bbl)
1.0 Litres (l)0.2642 US Gallons
1.0 Litres (l)1 x 10-3 Cubic metres (m³)
1.0 Imperial gallons4.5461 Litres (l)
1.0 Imperial gallons0.0286 Barrels (bbl)
1.0 Imperial gallons1.201 US Gallons
1.0 Imperial gallons4.5461 x 10-3 Cubic metres (m³)
1.0 Barrels (bbl)0.159 Cubic metres (m³)
1.0 Barrels (bbl)158.9873 Litres (l)
1.0 Barrels (bbl)34.9723 Imperial gallons
1.0 Barrels (bbl)42 US Gallons

Weight & Mass

UnitEquivalent to
1.0 Kilograms (kg)1 x 10-3 Tonnes (t)
1.0 Kilograms (kg)2.2046 Pounds (lb)
1.0 Tonnes (t)1,000 Kilograms (kg)
1.0 Tonnes (t)2,204.6226 Pounds (lb)
1.0 Pounds (lb)0.4536 Kilograms (kg)
1.0 Pounds (lb)4.5359 x 10-4 Tonnes (t)

Vehicle Mileage

UnitEquivalent to
1.0 Kilometres/Litre (km/l)2.3522 Miles/Gallon (mi/gal)
1.0 Miles/Gallon (mi/gal)0.4252 Kilometres/Litre (km/l)

Energy Terms

UnitEquivalent to
1.0 Watts (w)1 Joules (J) per second
1.0 Gigajoules (GJ)1 x 109 Joules (J)
1.0 Gigajoules (GJ)0.9478 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)
1.0 Gigajoules (GJ)2.7778 x 105 Watt-hours (W.h)
1.0 Gigajoules (GJ)277.7778 Kilowatt-hours (kW.h)
1.0 Gigajoules (GJ)0.2778 Megawatt-hours (MW.h)
1.0 Gigajoules (GJ)2.7778 x 10-4 Gigawatt-hours (GW.h)
1.0 Gigajoules (GJ)2.7778 x 10-7 Terawatt-hours (TW.h)
1.0 Gigajoules (GJ)947.8171 Cubic feet (cf) natural gas
1.0 Gigajoules (GJ)26.853 Cubic metres (m³) natural gas
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)1.0551 x 109 Joules (J)
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)1.0551 Gigajoules (GJ)
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)2.9307 x 105 Watt-hours (W.h)
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)293.0711 Kilowatt-hours (kW.h)
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)0.2931 Megawatt-hours (MW.h)
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)2.9307 x 10-4 Gigawatt-hours (GW.h)
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)2.9307 x 10-7 Terawatt-hours (TW.h)
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)1,000 Cubic feet (cf) natural gas
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)28.3278 Cubic metres (m³)
1.0 Watt-hours (W.h)3,600 Joules (J)
1.0 Watt-hours (W.h)3.6 x 10-6 Gigajoules (GJ)
1.0 Watt-hours (W.h)3.4121 x 10-6 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)
1.0 Watt-hours (W.h)1 x 10-3 Kilowatt-hours (kW.h)
1.0 Watt-hours (W.h)1 x 10-6 Megawatt-hours (MW.h)
1.0 Watt-hours (W.h)1 x 10-9 Gigawatt-hours (GW.h)
1.0 Watt-hours (W.h)1 x 10-12 Terawatt-hours (TW.h)
1.0 Kilowatt-hours (kW.h)3.6 x 106 Joules (J)
1.0 Kilowatt-hours (kW.h)3.6 x 10-3 Gigajoules (GJ)
1.0 Kilowatt-hours (kW.h)3.4121 x 10-3 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)
1.0 Kilowatt-hours (kW.h)1,000 Watt-hours (W.h)
1.0 Kilowatt-hours (kW.h)1 x 10-3 Megawatt-hours (MW.h)
1.0 Kilowatt-hours (kW.h)1 x 10-6 Gigawatt-hours (GW.h)
1.0 Kilowatt-hours (kW.h)1 x 10-9 Terawatt-hours (TW.h)
1.0 Megawatt-hours (MW.h)3.6 x 109 Joules (J)
1.0 Megawatt-hours (MW.h)3.60 Gigajoules (GJ)
1.0 Megawatt-hours (MW.h)3.4122 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)
1.0 Megawatt-hours (MW.h)1 x 106 Watt-hours (W.h)
1.0 Megawatt-hours (MW.h)1,000 Kilowatt-hours (kW.h)
1.0 Megawatt-hours (MW.h)1 x 10-3 Gigawatt-hours (GW.h)
1.0 Megawatt-hours (MW.h)1 x 10-6 Terawatt-hours (TW.h)
1.0 Gigawatt-hours (GW.h)3.6 x 1012 Joules (J)
1.0 Gigawatt-hours (GW.h)3,600 Gigajoules (GJ)
1.0 Gigawatt-hours (GW.h)3,412.1416 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)
1.0 Gigawatt-hours (GW.h)1 x 109 Watt-hours (W.h)
1.0 Gigawatt-hours (GW.h)1 x 106 Kilowatt-hours (kW.h)
1.0 Gigawatt-hours (GW.h)1,000 Megawatt-hours (MW.h)
1.0 Gigawatt-hours (GW.h)1 x 10-3 Terawatt-hours (TW.h)
1.0 Terawatt-hours (TW.h)3.6 x 1015 Joules (J)
1.0 Terawatt-hours (TW.h)3.6 x 106 Gigajoules (GJ)
1.0 Terawatt-hours (TW.h)3.4121 x 106 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)
1.0 Terawatt-hours (TW.h)1 x 1012 Watt-hours (W.h)
1.0 Terawatt-hours (TW.h)1 x 109 Kilowatt-hours (kW.h)
1.0 Terawatt-hours (TW.h)1 x 106 Megawatt-hours (MW.h)
1.0 Terawatt-hours (TW.h)1,000 Gigawatt-hours (GW.h)
1.0 Cubic feet (cf) natural gas1.0551 x 10-3 Gigajoules (GJ)
1.0 Cubic feet (cf) natural gas1 x 10-3 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) natural gas0.0373 Gigajoules (GJ)
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) natural gas0.0353 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)
1.0 Therms (thm)1 x 105 British thermal units (Btu)
1.0 Therms (thm)0.10 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)
1.0 Dekatherms (dth)10 Therms (thm)
1.0 Dekatherms (dth)1 Million British thermal units (MMBtu)

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

The values below are approximations only; values can vary with reference conditions and feed gas composition.
UnitEquivalent to
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) natural gas35.301 Cubic feet (cf) natural gas
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) natural gas1.7111 x 10-3 Cubic metres (m³) LNG
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) natural gas7.2487 x 10-4 Tonnes (t) LNG
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) LNG2.0631 x 104 Cubic feet (cf) natural gas
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) LNG584.431 Cubic metres (m³) natural gas
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) LNG0.4049 Tonnes (t) LNG
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) LNG2.0631 x 10-5 Billion cubic feet (Bcf) natural gas
1.0 Tonnes (t) LNG1,379.549 Cubic metres (m³) natural gas
1.0 Tonnes (t) LNG2.4697 Cubic metres (m³) LNG
1.0 Tonnes (t) LNG4.8699 x 104 Cubic feet (cf) natural gas
1.0 Cubic feet (cf) natural gas2.0531 x 10-5 Tonnes (t) LNG
1.0 Tonnes LNG per year133.4232 Cubic feet natural gas per day (cf/d)
1.0 Million Tonnes LNG per year0.1334 Billion cubic feet natural gas per day (Bcf/d)
1.0 Billion cubic feet (Bcf) natural gas4.8471 x 104 Cubic metres (m³) LNG
1.0 Billion cubic feet natural gas per day (Bcf/d)7.495 Million tonnes LNG per year

Approximate Energy Content


SubstanceUnitEquivalent to
Anthracite1.0 Tonnes (t)27.70 Gigajoules (GJ)
Bituminous1.0 Tonnes (t)27.60 Gigajoules (GJ)
Lignite1.0 Tonnes (t)14.40 Gigajoules (GJ)
Subbituminous1.0 Tonnes (t)18.80 Gigajoules (GJ)

Crude Oil & Bitumen

SubstanceUnitEquivalent to
Pentanes plus1.0 Cubic metres (m³)35.17 Gigajoules (GJ)
Light1.0 Cubic metres (m³)38.51 Gigajoules (GJ)
Heavy1.0 Cubic metres (m³)40.90 Gigajoules (GJ)
Synthetic crude oil1.0 Cubic metres (m³)39.40 Gigajoules (GJ)
Bitumen1.0 Cubic metres (m³)42.80 Gigajoules (GJ)

Natural Gas

UnitEquivalent to
1.0 Cubic metres (m³)
0.0373 Gigajoules (GJ)
(Based on 1000 Btu/cf)

Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs)

SubstanceUnitEquivalent to
Ethane1.0 Cubic metres (m³)18.36 Gigajoules (GJ)
Propane1.0 Cubic metres (m³)25.53 Gigajoules (GJ)
Butane1.0 Cubic metres (m³)28.62 Gigajoules (GJ)

Petroleum Products

SubstanceUnitEquivalent to
Asphalt1.0 Cubic metres (m³)44.46 Gigajoules (GJ)
Aviation gasoline1.0 Cubic metres (m³)33.52 Gigajoules (GJ)
Jet Fuel (Jet A-1)1.0 Cubic metres (m³)34.70 Gigajoules (GJ)
Diesel1.0 Cubic metres (m³)38.68 Gigajoules (GJ)
Heavy fuel oil1.0 Cubic metres (m³)41.73 Gigajoules (GJ)
Kerosene1.0 Cubic metres (m³)37.68 Gigajoules (GJ)
Heating Oil1.0 Cubic metres (m³)36.72 Gigajoules (GJ)
Lubes and greases1.0 Cubic metres (m³)39.16 Gigajoules (GJ)
Motor gasoline1.0 Cubic metres (m³)34.66 Gigajoules (GJ)
Naphtha specialties1.0 Cubic metres (m³)35.17 Gigajoules (GJ)
Petrochemical feedstock1.0 Cubic metres (m³)34.17 Gigajoules (GJ)
Petroleum coke1.0 Cubic metres (m³)42.38 Gigajoules (GJ)
Still gas1.0 Cubic metres (m³)41.73 Gigajoules (GJ)
Other products1.0 Cubic metres (m³)39.82 Gigajoules (GJ)

Other Fuels

SubstanceUnitEquivalent to
Ethanol1.0 Cubic metres (m³)23.60 Gigajoules (GJ)
Hydrogen (gas)1.0 Cubic metres (m³)0.012 Gigajoules (GJ)
Methanol1.0 Cubic metres (m³)15.60 Gigajoules (GJ)


The conversion factors provided on the CER website are for general information only and the CER makes no warranties for their use in particular purposes, including commercial agreements. You must not use this information as an alternative to advice from an appropriately qualified professional.